Lupercus was the Roman Pan, a pastoral god who protected flocks (especially from wolves). Attempts have been made to derive his name from lupos arcentes, 'warding off wolves', which seems more contrived than appropriate. His name is directly linked with the festival called the Lupercalia, held annually in Rome on 15 February in honour of Pan.

It took place near the cave of Lupercus, the Lupercal, believed by some writers to be the place where the she-wolf suckled Romulus and Remus. The exact connection between Lupercus and wolves and this festival (to say nothing of Pan and Romulus and Remus) is involved and uncertain.