Peneleüs was a Theban leader in the Trojan War. He was the son of Hipalcimus and Asterope, of whom nothing else is known. His name is difficult to interpret in terms of Greek words: the elements of his name appear to be pene, 'thread' (as for Peneius) and leos, 'people'.

But it is not so easy to string these together and get a good sense. Perhaps the 'thread of people' were those on board the contingent of fifty ships that Peneleüs and Leïtus led to the Trojan War? Robert Graves sees the name as 'baneful lion' [penthos, 'sad' and leon, 'lion'), which sounds more like a cartoon character than a mythological hero.